In-use stability assessment of FDA approved metformin immediate release and extended release products for N-Nitrosodimethylamine and dissolution quality attributes. Academic Article uri icon


  • Metformin is a widely used first-line oral antidiabetic agent. TheFood and Drug Administration (FDA) confirmed the presence of the ofN-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) impurity, a carcinogenic, above the acceptable daily intake (ADI, 96ng/day) in certain metformin products. The objective of the present study was to assess in-use stability of commercial metformin products for NDMA and dissolution quality attributes. Four immediate-release (M1-M4) and six extended-rerelease (M5-M10) metformin products were evaluated in the stability testing. All products were repacked in pharmacy vials and stored at 30C/75% RH for 12weeks. Five products (M2, M3, M5, M7 and M10) had NDMA level above ADI limit (96ng/day) before in-use stability exposure. NDMA in M2 (116452.9ng/tablet) and M3 (3776351.9ng/tablet) products were 12 and 39 folds of ADI, respectively. Similarly, ER products, M5 (19194.1ng/tablet), M7 (147347.3ng/tablet) and M10 (42355.8ng/tablet) exhibited NDMA of 1.9, 15.3 and 4.4 folds of ADI, respectively. The impurity level significantly (p<0.05) increased after 12-week stability exposure to 2.72, 2.47, 2.23 and 2.78 folds of initial values in M2, M3, M7 and M10. In summary, these findings suggested that carcinogenic impurity generation was affected by in-use stability condition exposure and it is expected that several more products currently in the market may also be recalled soon.

published proceedings

  • Int J Pharm

altmetric score

  • 14

author list (cited authors)

  • Dharani, S., Mohamed, E. M., Khuroo, T., Ali, H. I., Reddy, I. K., Rahman, Z., & Khan, M. A.

citation count

  • 5

complete list of authors

  • Dharani, Sathish||Mohamed, Eman M||Khuroo, Tahir||Ali, Hamed I||Reddy, Indra K||Rahman, Ziyaur||Khan, Mansoor A

publication date

  • July 2022