Design and printing of proprioceptive three-dimensional architected robotic metamaterials. Academic Article uri icon


  • Advances in additive manufacturing techniques have enabled the creation of stimuli-responsive materials with designed three-dimensional (3D) architectures. Unlike biological systems in which functions such as sensing, actuation, and control are closely integrated, few architected materials have comparable system complexity. We report a design and manufacturing route to create a class of robotic metamaterials capable of motion with multiple degrees of freedom, amplification of strain in a prescribed direction in response to an electric field (and vice versa), and thus, programmed motions with self-sensing and feedback control. These robotic metamaterials consist of networks of piezoelectric, conductive, and structural elements interwoven into a designed 3D lattice. The resulting architected materials function as proprioceptive microrobots that actively sense and move.

published proceedings

  • Science

altmetric score

  • 279.7

author list (cited authors)

  • Cui, H., Yao, D., Hensleigh, R., Lu, H., Calderon, A., Xu, Z., ... Zheng, X. R.

citation count

  • 1

complete list of authors

  • Cui, Huachen||Yao, Desheng||Hensleigh, Ryan||Lu, Haotian||Calderon, Ariel||Xu, Zhenpeng||Davaria, Sheyda||Wang, Zhen||Mercier, Patrick||Tarazaga, Pablo||Zheng, Xiaoyu Rayne

publication date

  • June 2022