Seasonal occurrence of key arthropod pests and associated natural enemies in Alabama Satsuma citrus. Academic Article uri icon


  • Six Alabama Satsuma mandarin orchards (four conventionally sprayed and two unsprayed) were surveyed during 2005 and 2006 to determine the population dynamics of arthropod pests and their natural enemies. Twenty-eight arthropod pest species were encountered; the major foliage pests were citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead); purple scale, Lepidosaphes beckii (Newman); Glover scale, L. gloveri (Packard); and citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor). Two distinct population peaks were recorded for citrus whitefly at most locations. The most important direct sources of citrus whitefly mortality were parasitism by Encarsia lahorensis (Howard) and infection by the pathogenic fungus, Aschersonia aleyrodis Webber. In general, all stages of both scale insects (purple scale and Glover scale) were present in the orchards year-round, indicative of overlapping generations; however, the highest densities were recorded during the early season. Citrus whitefly, purple scale, and Glover scale were more abundant on leaves collected from the interior of the tree canopy than in the exterior canopy. Citrus red mite densities were highest in the spring, with populations declining at the start of the summer, and were more abundant in the exterior canopy than in the interior canopy. The most important natural enemies of citrus red mite were predatory mites belonging to several families, of which Typhlodromalus peregrinus Muma (Phytoseiidae) was the predominant species. Major differences were recorded in the relative abundance of different arthropod pest species in the orchards: citrus whitefly, purple scale, and Glover scale predominated in the unsprayed orchards, whereas citrus red mite infestations were more severe in the sprayed orchards. The results are discussed in relation to the possible effect of orchard management practices on abundance of the major pests.

published proceedings

  • Environ Entomol

author list (cited authors)

  • Fadamiro, H. Y., Xiao, Y., Hargroder, T., Nesbitt, M., Umeh, V., & Childers, C. C.

citation count

  • 14

complete list of authors

  • Fadamiro, Henry Y||Xiao, Yingfang||Hargroder, Terry||Nesbitt, Monte||Umeh, Vincent||Childers, Carl C

publication date

  • April 2008