Relationship between Household Dynamics, Biomass Consumption, and Carbon Emissions in Pakistan Academic Article uri icon


  • Over the years, the household sector has become an important energy consumer and the main source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The rural household sector has significant potential for emission reduction due to its heavy reliance on traditional fuels and technologies. A great number of academic studies have been undertaken to analyze patterns of household energy and their determinants around the globe, particularly in developing countries. However, little is known about the association between household dynamics and patterns of energy (biomass vs. non-renewable) use. This study aims to analyze the relationship between different household dynamics, such as household size, income, climate, availability of resources, markets, awareness, consumption of energy, and carbon emissions. The study uses the STIRPAT model to investigate the impact of income, household size, housing dimensions, clean energy, and market accessibility on energy consumption. The findings of the study reveal that biomass energy accounts for the majority of household energy consumption and dung has the highest share in total household energy consumption (39.11%) The consumption of biomass increased with the size of the household and decreased with the level of income. A 1 kgoe increase in biomass consumption resulted in a 15.355 kg increase in CO2 emissions; on the other hand, a 1 kgoe increase in non-renewable-energy consumption resulted in just a 0.8675 kg increase in CO2 emissions. The coefficients of housing unit size, distance from the LPG market, and livestock were the primary determinants for choosing any fuel. Having knowledge of modern cookstoves, clean energy, and the environmental impact of fuels reduced the consumption of both energy sources. Furthermore, it was found that households with a greater reliance on biomass emitted higher quantities of carbon compared to those with a low reliance on biomass. Based on the results of the study, it can be stated that a reduction in the use of biomass and non-renewable energy is possible with adequate interventions and knowledge.

published proceedings

  • Sustainability

author list (cited authors)

  • Imran, M., Zahid, A., Mouneer, S., zatalba, O., Ul Haq, S., Shahbaz, P., Muzammil, M., & Murtaza, M. R.

citation count

  • 0

complete list of authors

  • Imran, Muhammad||Zahid, Azlan||Mouneer, Salma||Özçatalbaş, Orhan||Ul Haq, Shamsheer||Shahbaz, Pomi||Muzammil, Muhammad||Murtaza, Muhammad Ramiz

publication date

  • May 2022