Role of tyrosine autophosphorylation and methionine residues in BRI1 function in Arabidopsis thaliana.
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BACKGROUND: Brassinosteroids (BRs), a group of plant growth hormones, control biomass accumulation and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and therefore are highly relevant to agriculture. BRs bind to the BR receptor protein, brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (BRI1), which is classified as a serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinase. Recently, we reported that BRI1 acts as a dual-specificity kinase both in vitro and in vivo by undergoing autophosphorylation at tyrosine (Tyr) residues. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we characterized the increased leaf growth and early flowering phenotypes of transgenic lines expressing the mutated recombinant protein, BRI1(Y831F)-Flag, compared with those expressing BRI1-Flag. BRI1(Y831F)-Flag transgenic plants showed a reduction in hypocotyl and petiole length compared with BRI1-Flag seedlings. Transcriptome analysis revealed differential expression of flowering time-associated genes (AP1, AP2, AG, FLC, and SMZ) between BRI1(Y831F)-Flag and BRI1-Flag transgenic seedlings. We also performed site-directed mutagenesis of the BRI1 gene, and investigated the effect of methionine (Met) substitution in the extracellular domain (ECD) of BRI1 on plant growth and BR sensitivity by evaluating hypocotyl elongation and root growth inhibition. METHODS: The pBIB-Hyg+-pBR-BRI1-Flag construct(Li et al. 2002) was used as the template for SDM with QuickChange XL Site Directed Mutagenesis Kit (Stratagene, La Jolla, CA, USA) to make the SDM mutants. After PCR with SDM kit, add 1l of Dpn1 to PCR reaction. Incubate at 37C for 2h to digest parental DNA and then transformed into XL10-gold competent cells. Transcriptome analysis was carried out at the University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, USA). RNA was prepared and hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip Arabidopsis ATH1 Genome Array using the Gene Chip Express Kit (Ambion, Austin, TX, USA). RESULTS: Tyrosine 831 autophosphorylation of BRI1 regulates Arabidopsis flowering time, and mutation of methionine residues in the extracellular domain of BRI1 affects hypocotyl and root length. BRI1(M656Q)-Flag, BRI1(M657Q)-Flag, and BRI1(M661Q)-Flag seedlings were insensitive to the BL treatment and showed no inhibition of root elongation. However, BRI1(M665Q)-Flag and BRI1(M671Q)-Flag seedlings were sensitive to the BL treatment, and exhibited root elongation inhibition. the early flowering phenotype of BRI1(Y831F)-Flag transgenic plants is consistent with the expression levels of key flowering-related genes, including those promoting flowering (AP1, AP2, and AG) and repressing flowering (FLC and SMZ).
author list (cited authors)
Choi, J., Oh, E., Min, H., Chae, W. B., Mandadi, K. K., & Oh, M.
complete list of authors
Choi, Jae-Han||Oh, Eun-Seok||Min, Hansol||Chae, Won Byoung||Mandadi, Kranthi Kiran||Oh, Man-Ho