Raman Spectroscopy Enables Non-invasive and Confirmatory Diagnostics of Aluminum and Iron Toxicities in Rice. Academic Article uri icon


  • Metal toxicities can be detrimental to a plant health, as well as to the health of animals and humans that consume such plants. Metal content of plants can be analyzed using colorimetric, atomic absorption- or mass spectroscopy-based methods. However, these techniques are destructive, costly and laborious. In the current study, we investigate the potential of Raman spectroscopy (RS), a modern spectroscopic technique, for detection and identification of metal toxicities in rice. We modeled medium and high levels of iron and aluminum toxicities in hydroponically grown plants. Spectroscopic analyses of their leaves showed that both iron and aluminum toxicities can be detected and identified with 100% accuracy as early as day 2 after the stress initiation. We also showed that diagnostics accuracy was very high not only on early, but also on middle (day 4-day 8) and late (day 10-day 14) stages of the stress development. Importantly this approach only requires an acquisition time of 1 s; it is non-invasive and non-destructive to plants. Our findings suggest that if implemented in farming, RS can enable pre-symptomatic detection and identification of metallic toxins that would lead to faster recovery of crops and prevent further damage.

published proceedings

  • Front Plant Sci

altmetric score

  • 1.75

author list (cited authors)

  • Higgins, S., Biswas, S., Goff, N. K., Septiningsih, E. M., & Kurouski, D.

citation count

  • 3

complete list of authors

  • Higgins, Samantha||Biswas, Sudip||Goff, Nicolas K||Septiningsih, Endang M||Kurouski, Dmitry

publication date

  • January 2022