Mid-Infrared Electro-Optical Modulation Using Monolithically Integrated Titanium Dioxide on Lithium Niobate Optical Waveguides. Academic Article uri icon


  • Tunable photonic circuits were demonstrated in the mid-Infrared (mid-IR) regime using integrated TiO2-on-LiNbO3 (ToL) waveguides. The upper waveguide ridge was made by a sputtered TiO2 thin film with broad transparency at =0.4-8m and an optimized refractive index n=2.39. The waveguide substrate is a z-cut single crystalline LiNbO3 (LN) wafer that has strong Pockels effect, thus enabling the tunability of the device through electro-optical (E-O) modulation. A sharp waveguide mode was obtained at =2.5m without scattering or mode distortion found. The measured E-O coefficient eff was 5.9pm/V approaching 31 of 8.6pm/V of LN. The ToL waveguide showed a hybrid mode profile where its optical field can be modified by adjusting the TiO2 ridge height. Our monolithically integrated ToL modulator is an efficient and small footprint optical switch critical for the development of reconfigurable photonic chips.

published proceedings

  • Sci Rep

author list (cited authors)

  • Jin, T., Zhou, J., & Lin, P. T.

complete list of authors

  • Jin, Tiening||Zhou, Junchao||Lin, Pao Tai

publication date

  • October 2019