Effector-mediated relocalization of a maize lipoxygenase protein triggers susceptibility to Ustilago maydis. Academic Article uri icon


  • As the gall-inducing smut fungus Ustilago maydis colonizes maize (Zea mays) plants, it secretes a complex effector blend that suppresses host defense responses, including production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and redirects host metabolism to facilitate colonization. We show that the U. maydis effector ROS burst interfering protein 1 (Rip1), which is involved in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered suppression of host immunity, is functionally conserved in several other monocot-infecting smut fungi. We also have identified a conserved C-terminal motif essential for Rip1-mediated PAMP-triggered suppression of the ROS burst. The maize susceptibility factor lipoxygenase 3 (Zmlox3) bound by Rip1 was relocalized to the nucleus, leading to partial suppression of the ROS burst. Relocalization was independent of its enzymatic activity, revealing a distinct function for ZmLox3. Most importantly, whereas Zmlox3 maize mutant plants showed increased resistance to U. maydis wild-type strains, rip1 deletion strains infecting the Zmlox3 mutant overcame this effect. This could indicate that Rip1-triggered host resistance depends on ZmLox3 to be suppressed and that lox3 mutation-based resistance of maize to U. maydis requires functional Rip1. Together, our results reveal that Rip1 acts in several cellular compartments to suppress immunity and that targeting of ZmLox3 by Rip1 is responsible for the suppression of Rip1-dependent reduced susceptibility of maize to U. maydis.

published proceedings

  • Plant Cell

altmetric score

  • 92.55

author list (cited authors)

  • Saado, I., Chia, K., Betz, R., Alcntara, A., Pettk-Szandtner, A., Navarrete, F., ... Djamei, A.

citation count

  • 10

complete list of authors

  • Saado, Indira||Chia, Khong-Sam||Betz, Ruben||Alcântara, André||Pettkó-Szandtner, Aladár||Navarrete, Fernando||D'Auria, John C||Kolomiets, Michael V||Melzer, Michael||Feussner, Ivo||Djamei, Armin

publication date

  • July 2022