Affirming and Inclusive Care Training for Medical Students and Residents to Reduce Health Disparities Experienced by Sexual and Gender Minorities: A Systematic Review. Academic Article uri icon


  • PURPOSE: Providing inclusive and comprehensive gender-affirming care is critical to reducing health disparities (gaps in care) experienced by sexual and gender minorities (SGM). Currently, little is known about how medical students and residents are being trained to address the health needs of SGM persons or of the most effective methods. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the research literature from 2000 to 2020 on the effectiveness of teaching medical students and residents on knowledge, attitudes, and skills in addressing the health of SGM persons and the strength of the research sample, design, and methods used. RESULTS: We identified a total of 36 articles that assessed the impact of medical student and resident education on knowledge, comfort, attitudes, confidence, and skills in working with SGM patients. All studies utilized quasi-experimental designs, and found efficacious results. No study examined the impact of training on patient outcomes. CONCLUSION: Future studies will need to be powered and designed to assess the impact of training on patient outcomes.

published proceedings

  • Transgend Health

altmetric score

  • 5.2

author list (cited authors)

  • Cooper, R. L., Ramesh, A., Radix, A. E., Reuben, J. S., Juarez, P. D., Holder, C. L., ... Matthews-Juarez, P.

citation count

  • 4

complete list of authors

  • Cooper, Robert Lyle||Ramesh, Aramandla||Radix, Asa E||Reuben, Jayne S||Juarez, Paul D||Holder, Cheryl L||Belton, Allyson S||Brown, Katherine Y||Mena, Leandro A||Matthews-Juarez, Patricia

publication date

  • August 2023