Wearable plasmonic paper-based microfluidics for continuous sweat analysis.
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Wearable sweat sensors have the potential to provide clinically meaningful information associated with the health and disease states of individuals. Current sensors mainly rely on enzymes and antibodies as biorecognition elements to achieve specific quantification of metabolite and stress biomarkers in sweat. However, enzymes and antibodies are prone to degrade over time, compromising the sensor performance. Here, we introduce a wearable plasmonic paper-based microfluidic system for continuous and simultaneous quantitative analysis of sweat loss, sweat rate, and metabolites in sweat. Plasmonic sensors based on label-free surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) can provide chemical "fingerprint" information for analyte identification. We demonstrate the sensitive detection and quantification of uric acid in sweat at physiological and pathological concentrations. The well-defined flow characteristics of paper microfluidic devices enable accurate quantification of sweat loss and sweat rate. The wearable plasmonic device is soft, flexible, and stretchable, which can robustly interface with the skin without inducing chemical or physical irritation.