The science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) field is a crucial global driver for the development of various aspects of modern society, such as the economy, technology, education, and skills of the 21st-century workforce. All countries strive to produce STEM talent to meet future economic markets. Sustained professional development (PD) can support reform in STEM. Teachers need professional training to improve their knowledge, understanding, and teaching practices, which affect the development of their students meaningful learning. As a result, a systematic study was carried out to identify STEM PD activities and their influence on teachers knowledge and instructional methods. The peer-reviewed publications were published between 2017 and 2021, and Scopus, Web of Science, and EBSCOhost databases were used to find them. A comprehensive review of these empirical articles produced a total of 15 subthemes under activities and impact themes. The results exhibited that the dominant activities of STEM PD included engineering activities that indirectly had an extremely high impact on teachers knowledge and teaching practices related to engineering design, the problem-solving process as it relates to the engineering design process, and experiences of scientists and engineers. Finally, several recommendations for STEM PD sustainability and future research reference are presented.