Compatibility Strut-and-Tie Modeling: Part I-Formulation Academic Article uri icon


  • A compatibility-based strut-and-tie model (C-STM) intended for analyzing the nonlinear force-deformation behavior of disturbed regions and structural concrete deep beams is presented. In addition to the normal strut-and-tie force equilibrium requirements, the proposed C-STM accounts for nonlinear behavior using nonlinear constitutive relations for cracked reinforced concrete. The model is implemented using commercially available structural analysis software, SAP2000. To assess C-STM accuracy, convergence studies using different truss representations are explored. Particular emphasis is placed on investigating the behavior of deep cantile-vered beams to provide insight into the progression of nonlinear response leading to the ultimate shear failure. New developments for modeling the nonlinear behavior of concrete compression chord members and compression-softening effects of diagonal concrete struts are proposed. The implementation is presented in the companion paper. 2012, American Concrete Institute.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Scott, R. M., Mander, J. B., & Bracci, J. M.

complete list of authors

  • Scott, Reece M||Mander, John B||Bracci, Joseph M

publication date

  • September 2012