Methodology for using residual stresses for self-assembly during deposition and etching of microstructures under external load
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A methodology is presented for using intrinsic (or residual) stresses as a means of self-assembling microstructures under external loading during material deposition and etching. Assembly of two components is considered: one component is subjected to deposition or etching and is modeled as an Euler-Bernoulli beam and the other component is neither deposited nor etched and is modeled as a linear spring. For the purposes of this paper, the definition of assembly requires that the beam does work on the spring. It is shown that, during deposition, the beam deflection and the work performed by the beam on the spring are monotonic. During etching, however, the beam deflection and the work can be nonmonotonic, thus complicating the design of self-assembly processes. The deposition analysis is experimentally verified by electroplating nickel onto an AFM cantilever beam in contact with a second AFM beam (serving as the spring) that does not undergo deposition. 2007 IOP Publishing Ltd.