An equilibrium model for chloride removal from recycled cooling water using the ultra-high lime with aluminum process. Academic Article uri icon


  • Removal of chloride from recycled cooling water is needed to reduce corrosion and prolong equipment life. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that the ultra-high lime with aluminum (UHLA) process has the ability to achieve high chloride removal efficiency from recycled cooling water. In an effort to further understand the behavior of chloride in the UHLA process, a fundamental model of the chemical processes was developed. The purpose of this paper is to describe this equilibrium model and present values for solubility products of precipitated solids that have not been investigated previously. The model was based on PHREEQC and a new program called INVRS K was integrated with PHREEQC to calculate values of unknown or poorly defined equilibrium or kinetic constants using a Gauss-Newton nonlinear regression routine. Model predictions indicated that the results could be best described by assuming the formation of a solid solution of calcium chloroaluminate (Ca4Al2Cl2OH12), tricalcium hydroxyaluminate (Ca3Al2OH12), and tetracalcium hydroxyaluminate (Ca4Al2OH14).

published proceedings

  • Water Environ Res

altmetric score

  • 3

author list (cited authors)

  • Abdel-Wahab, A., Batchelor, B., & Schwantes, J.

citation count

  • 14

complete list of authors

  • Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed||Batchelor, Bill||Schwantes, Jon

publication date

  • November 2005