Recent amplification of microsatellite-associated miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements in the pineapple genome. Academic Article uri icon


  • BACKGROUND: Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are non-autonomous DNA transposable elements that play important roles in genome organization and evolution. Genome-wide identification and characterization of MITEs provide essential information for understanding genome structure and evolution. RESULTS: We performed genome-wide identification and characterization of MITEs in the pineapple genome. The top two MITE families, accounting for 29.39% of the total MITEs and 3.86% of the pineapple genome, have insertion preference in (TA) n dinucleotide microsatellite regions. We therefore named these MITEs A. comosus microsatellite-associated MITEs (Ac-mMITEs). The two Ac-mMITE families, Ac-mMITE-1 and Ac-mMITE-2, shared sequence similarity in the terminal inverted repeat (TIR) regions, suggesting that these two Ac-mMITE families might be derived from a common or closely related autonomous elements. The Ac-mMITEs are frequently clustered via adjacent insertions. Among the 21,994 full-length Ac-mMITEs, 46.1% of them were present in clusters. By analyzing the Ac-mMITEs without (TA) n microsatellite flanking sequences, we found that Ac-mMITEs were likely derived from Mutator-like DNA transposon. Ac-MITEs showed highly polymorphic insertion sites between cultivated pineapples and their wild relatives. To better understand the evolutionary history of Ac-mMITEs, we filtered and performed comparative analysis on the two distinct groups of Ac-mMITEs, microsatellite-targeting MITEs (mt-MITEs) that are flanked by dinucleotide microsatellites on both sides and mutator-like MITEs (ml-MITEs) that contain 9/10bp TSDs. Epigenetic analysis revealed a lower level of host-induced silencing on the mt-MITEs in comparison to the ml-MITEs, which partially explained the significantly higher abundance of mt-MITEs in pineapple genome. The mt-MITEs and ml-MITEs exhibited differential insertion preference to gene-related regions and RNA-seq analysis revealed their differential influences on expression regulation of nearby genes. CONCLUSIONS: Ac-mMITEs are the most abundant MITEs in the pineapple genome and they were likely derived from Mutator-like DNA transposon. Preferential insertion in (TA) n microsatellite regions of Ac-mMITEs occurred recently and is likely the result of damage-limiting strategy adapted by Ac-mMITEs during co-evolution with their host. Insertion in (TA) n microsatellite regions might also have promoted the amplification of mt-MITEs. In addition, mt-MITEs showed no or negligible impact on nearby gene expression, which may help them escape genome control and lead to their amplification.

published proceedings

  • BMC Plant Biol

altmetric score

  • 0.75

author list (cited authors)

  • Lin, L., Sharma, A., & Yu, Q.

citation count

  • 1

complete list of authors

  • Lin, Lianyu||Sharma, Anupma||Yu, Qingyi

publication date

  • January 2021