Reductive capacity of natural reductants.
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Reductive capacities of soil minerals and soil for Cr(VI) and chlorinated ethylenes were measured and characterized to provide basic knowledge for in-situ and ex-situ treatment using these natural reductants. The reductive capacities of iron-bearing sulfide (pyrite), hydroxide (green rust; GR(SO4)), and oxide (magnetite) minerals for Cr(VI) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were 1-3 orders of magnitude greater than those of iron-bearing phyllosilicates (biotite, vermiculite, and montmorillonite). The reductive capacities of surface soil collected from the plains of central Texas were similar and slightly greater than those of iron-bearing phyllosilicates. The reductive capacity of iron-bearing soil minerals for Cr(VI) was roughly 3-16 times greater than that for PCE, implying that Cr(VI) is more susceptible to being reduced by soil minerals than is PCE. GR(SO4) has the greatest reductive capacity for both Cr(VI) and PCE followed by magnetite, pyrite, biotite, montmorillonite, and vermiculite. This order was the same for both target compounds, which indicates that the relative reductive capacities of soil minerals are consistent. The reductive capacities of pyrite and GR(SO4) for chlorinated ethylenes decreased in the order: trichloroethylene (TCE) > PCE > cis-dichloroethylene (c-DCE) > vinyl chloride (VC). Fe(II) content in soil minerals was directly proportional to the reductive capacity of soil minerals for Cr(VI) and PCE, suggesting that Fe(II) content is an important factor that significantly affects reductive transformations of target contaminants in natural systems.
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