Interactions between chloride and sulfate or silica removals using an advanced lime-aluminum softening process. Academic Article uri icon


  • An advanced softening process called the ultra-high lime with aluminum process (UHLA) was initiated in this research. The UHLA process has the ability to remove sulfate, silica, and chloride from waters such as recycled cooling water and desalination brines. Furthermore, it can remove other scale-forming materials, such as calcium, magnesium, carbonate, and phosphate. The purpose of this paper is to study the interactions among chloride, sulfate, and silica in the UHLA process. Results of equilibrium experiments indicated that sulfate is preferentially removed over chloride. Final chloride concentration increased with increasing initial sulfate concentration. However, initial chloride concentration was found to have negligible effect on final sulfate concentration. Silica was found to have only a small effect on chloride removal.

published proceedings

  • Water Environ Res

altmetric score

  • 3

author list (cited authors)

  • Abdel-Wahab, A., & Batchelor, B.

citation count

  • 5

complete list of authors

  • Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed||Batchelor, Bill

publication date

  • December 2006