Mitigating Variability of High Penetration Photovoltaic Systems in a Community Smart Microgrid using Non-Flat Photovoltaic Modules Conference Paper uri icon


  • Utilization of renewable energy sources continues to gain popularity. However, two major limitations exist that prevent widespread adoption: variability of electricity generated and cost of the equipment needed. Emerging photovoltaic (PV) technologies have enabled the creation of non-flat PV modules. Distributed generation (DG) grid-tied photovoltaic systems using non-flat modules with centralized battery back-up can help mitigate the variability of PV systems with flat modules. Thus it is an attractive system to meet go green mandates while also providing reliable electricity. The proposed sizing approach is based on high temporal rate collected insolation data sampled every 10 seconds instead of more commonly used hourly data rate. The methodology presented in this paper employs a techno-economic approach to determine the optimal system design to guarantee reliable electricity supply with lowest investment. The results show that using non-flat PV modules can reduce loss of load probability compare to flat modules while minimizing the capital investment. 2013 IEEE.

name of conference

  • 2013 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Shadmand, M. B., & Balog, R. S.

citation count

  • 5

complete list of authors

  • Shadmand, Mohammad B||Balog, Robert S

publication date

  • September 2013