Holdups in Nitride MXene's Development and Limitations in Advancing the Field of MXene.
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As nanomaterials are becoming a key component in various electronics, 2D nanomaterials are emerging and attracting tremendous attention in the scientific community due to their unique physical, chemical, and structural properties. In recent years, a new family of 2D carbides and nitrides, known as MXenes, has become the center of attention for many electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems. While nitride MXenes have some publications centered around them, the overwhelming majority revolve around carbide and their direct application to systems without understanding the underlying mechanism behind their performance. The lack of publications in both of these fields, nitrides and mechanistic understanding, causes a major stopgap in MXene research and needs to be remedied in order to truly utilize their potential for future electronics and energy conversion systems. In this work, the limited works on nitride MXenes and the applications of in situ/operando characterization techniques in understanding the underlying mechanisms of energy storage and conversion in MXenes are reviewed, major progress and remaining challenges in both fields are identified, recommendations on how to circumvent the challenges and limitations are provided, and finally, new research directions that must be performed to advance the field of 2D carbide and nitride MXenes are proposed.