Inhibition of Zoonotic Pathogens Naturally Found in Pig Manure by Black Soldier Fly Larvae and Their Intestine Bacteria. Academic Article uri icon


  • Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae are often exposed to organic waste which harbors abundant zoonotic pathogens. We investigated the ability of BSF larvae to inhibit the zoonotic pathogens naturally found in pig manure. The zoonotic pathogens populations were detected by using selective medium during the conversion. Results showed that the viability of the zoonotic pathogens in pig manure was significantly affected. After eight days of conversion, the Coliform populations were undetected, and Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. decreased significantly on the eighth day. Antimicrobial assays of the purified recombinant defensin-like peptide 4 (DLP4) showed that this peptide exhibits inhibitory activity against S. aureus, Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium, and Escherichia coli in vitro. Bacteria BSF-CL and BSF-F were isolated from the larvae gut, and both inhibited the growth of S. aureus and E. coli, but Salmonella spp. was sensitive to the BSF-CL strain (but not to the BSF-F strain). The results from our experiments indicate that BSF larvae are capable of functionally inhibiting potential zoonotic pathogens in pig manure through a variety of mechanisms including antimicrobial peptides expression and the gut associate microorganisms. This study provides a theoretical basis for further study on the combined mechanism of BSF larvae immunity and its gut microbes against the zoonotic pathogens in pig manure.

published proceedings

  • Insects

altmetric score

  • 0.5

author list (cited authors)

  • Elhag, O., Zhang, Y., Xiao, X., Cai, M., Zheng, L., Jordan, H. R., ... Zhang, J.

citation count

  • 10

complete list of authors

  • Elhag, Osama||Zhang, Yuanpu||Xiao, Xiaopeng||Cai, Minmin||Zheng, Longyu||Jordan, Heather R||Tomberlin, Jeffery K||Huang, Feng||Yu, Ziniu||Zhang, Jibin

publication date

  • January 2022