Axin2+ PDL Cells Directly Contribute to New Alveolar Bone Formation in Response to Orthodontic Tension Force.
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Wnt--catenin signaling plays a key role in orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), a common clinical practice for malocclusion correction. However, its targeted periodontal ligament (PDL) progenitor cells remain largely unclear. In this study, we first showed a synchronized increase in Wnt--catenin levels and Axin2+ PDL progenitor cell numbers during OTM using immunostaining of -catenin in wild-type mice and X-gal staining in the Axin2-LacZ knock-in line. Next, we demonstrated time-dependent increases in Axin2+ PDL progenitors and their progeny cell numbers within PDL and alveolar bones during OTM using a one-time tamoxifen-induced Axin2 tracing line (Axin2CreERT2/+; R26RtdTomato/+). Coimmunostaining images displayed both early and late bone markers (such as RUNX2 and DMP1) in the Axin2Lin PDL cells. Conversely, ablation of Axin2+ PDL cells via one-time tamoxifen-induced diphtheria toxin subunit A (DTA) led to a drastic decrease in osteogenic activity (as reflected by alkaline phosphatase) in PDL and alveolar bone. There was also a decrease in new bone mass and a significant reduction in the mineral apposition rate on both the control side (to a moderate degree) and the OTM side (to a severe degree). Thus, we conclude that the Axin2+ PDL cells (the Wnt-targeted key cells) are highly sensitive to orthodontic tension force and play a critical role in OTM-induced PDL expansion and alveolar bone formation. Future drug development targeting the Axin2+ PDL progenitor cells may accelerate alveolar bone formation during orthodontic treatment.
author list (cited authors)
Wang, K., Xu, C., Xie, X., Jing, Y., Chen, P. J., Yadav, S., ... Feng, J. Q.
complete list of authors
Wang, K||Xu, C||Xie, X||Jing, Y||Chen, PJ||Yadav, S||Wang, Z||Taylor, RW||Wang, J||Feng, JQ