Inflammatory response to implantation of transparent nanocrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia using a dorsal window chamber model.
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The long-range goal of the windows to the brain (WttB) is to improve patient care by providing a technique for delivery and/or collection of light into/from the brain, on demand, over large areas, and on a chronically-recurring basis without the need for repeated craniotomies. To evaluate the potential of nanocrystalline yttria-stabilized-zirconia (nc-YSZ) cranial implant for optical therapy and imaging, in vivo biocompatibility was studied using the dorsal window chamber model in comparison with control (no implant) and commercially available cranial implant materials (PEEK and PEKK). The host tissue response to implant was characterized by using transillumination and fluorescent microscopy to measure leukocyte adhesion, blood vessel diameter, blood flow rate, and vascular permeability over two weeks. The results indicated the lack of inflammatory reaction of the host tissue to nc-YSZ at the microscopic level, suggesting that nc-YSZ is a good alternative material for cranial implants.