Molecular characterization of Dipetalonema yatesi from the black-faced spider monkey (Ateles chamek) with phylogenetic inference of relationships among Dipetalonema of Neotropical primates.
Additional Document Info
Species of the genus Dipetalonema are parasitic nematodes of the family Onchocercidae (Nematoda; Filarioidea) which infect the peritoneal cavity of Neotropical primates. Of these, six species have been taxonomically described, two of these have been reported infecting the black-faced spider monkey (Ateles chamek): Dipetalonema gracile and Dipetalonema yatesi. Description of Dipetalonema species have been based on morphological characteristics, and their phylogenetic relationships remain unresolved. A few molecular studies have been carried out in Dipetalonema spp. infecting Neotropical primates. Seven filarioid nematodes (6 females and one male) recovered from one A. chamek in the Peruvian Amazon rainforest were morphologically identified as D. yatesi and molecularly characterized. A multi-locus genetic analysis of nuclear ribosomal region (18S) and mitochondrial (cox1, 12S, and nad5) gene sequences supported D. yatesi as a distinct lineage and yielded a highly resolved phylogenetic lineage tree for this filarioid genus of Neotropical primates. Our results highlighted that Dipetalonema species are divided in two well-supported clades, one containing D. yatesi and D. caudispina, and the second containing D. robini, D. gracile, and D. graciliformis. Due to sequence ambiguities from GenBank entries, relationships among isolates of D. gracile and D. graciliformis cannot be fully resolved, which requires further investigation. However, this suggests that these could represent a species complex. Our study confirms that D. yatesi is a valid species and constitutes the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of this parasite in black-faced spider monkeys.