Prospective evaluation of complications associated with transesophageal echocardiography in dogs with congenital heart disease.
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BACKGROUND: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is useful in the assessment and procedural monitoring of congenital heart disease (CHD) with a relatively low complication rate in humans. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety of TEE and report complications in dogs. ANIMALS: Forty client-owned dogs with CHD. METHODS: Prospective observational study including gastroesophagoscopy before and after TEE imaging. TEE was planned with a GE 6VT-D adult probe in dogs weighing 4kg and a GE 10T-D microprobe alternating with an intracardiac echocardiography probe placed in the esophagus in dogs <4kg. Difficulties with probe placement, probe interference and TEE probe imaging times were recorded. Dogs were monitored in the recovery period after TEE using an established nausea scoring system. RESULTS: New gastroesophageal abnormalities were identified after TEE in 4 dogs including 4 areas of mucosal damage involving <25% of the lower esophageal sphincter (n=4) and 1 lesion at the heart base (n=1) and were not attributed to longer imaging times or a specific probe. Lesions identified before TEE in 4 dogs remained unchanged after TEE. The 6VT-D probe could not be placed in 1 dog with enlarged tonsils, and it obstructed fluoroscopic views in 3 dogs. The probes did not compress any structures in dogs in which fluoroscopy was performed (n=20). Four dogs had evidence to suggest nausea after the procedure. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: While major complications remain possible, complications in this study were mild and few in number. Dog size and probe characteristics are factors to consider when performing TEE.
author list (cited authors)
Stoner, C. H., Saunders, A. B., Heseltine, J. C., Cook, A. K., & Lidbury, J. A.
complete list of authors
Stoner, Caitlin H||Saunders, Ashley B||Heseltine, Johanna C||Cook, Audrey K||Lidbury, Jonathan A