This paper presents a method to identify switch time from end of linear flow (telf) to transition or boundary-dominated flow (BDF) by utilizing multiple diagnostic plots including a Modified Fetkovich type curve (Eleiott et al. 2019). In this study, we analyzed publicly available production data to analyze transient linear flow behavior and boundary-dominated flow from multiple unconventional reservoirs.
This method applies a log-log plot of rate versus time combined with a log-log plot of rate versus material balance time (MBT). In addition to log-log plots, a specialized plot of rate versus square root of time is used to confirm telf. A plot of MBT versus actual time, t, is provided to convert material balance time to actual time, and vice versa. The Modified Fetkovich type curve is used to estimate decline parameters and reservoir properties. Applications of this method using monthly production data from Bakken and Permian Shale areas are presented in this work.
Utilizing public data, our comprehensive review of approximately 800 multi-staged fractured horizontal wells (MFHW) from North American unconventional reservoirs found many of them exhibiting linear flow production characteristics. To identify end of linear flow, a log-log plot of rate versus time alone is not sufficient, especially when a well is not operated in a consistent manner. This paper shows using additional diagnostic plots such as rate versus MBT and specialized plots can assist interpreters to better identify end of linear flow. With the end of linear flow determined for these wells, the interpreter can use the telf to forecast future production and estimate reservoir properties using the modified type curve.
These diagnostic plots can be added to existing production analysis tools so that engineers can analyze changes in flow regimes in a timely manner, have better understanding of how to forecast their wells, and reduce the uncertainty in estimated ultimate recoveries related to decline parameters.