The effect of emerging tobacco related products and their toxic constituents on thrombosis.
Additional Document Info
Although conventional cigarette smoking is declining, emerging tobacco related products (ETRPs) are currently gaining ground, especially among the youth. These products include electronic cigarettes, waterpipes/hookah, cigars/cigarillo, smokeless tobacco, and heat-not-burn cigarettes. The observed increase in the use of ETRPs is multifactorial and complex but appears to be mainly driven by efforts from the major tobacco companies to reinvent themselves, and present more appealing and allegedly safe(r) tobacco products. However, it is becoming apparent that these products produce substantial amounts of toxic chemicals, many of which have been shown to exert negative health effects, including in the context of the cardiovascular system. Thus, there has been research efforts, albeit limited in general, to characterize the health impact of these products on occlusive/thrombotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In this review, we will discuss the potential impact of ETRPs on thrombosis-based CVD. Specifically, we will review how these products and the major chemicals they produce and/or emit can trigger key players in the process of thrombosis, namely inflammation, oxidative stress, platelets, coagulation, and the vascular endothelium, and the relationship between these effects.