Implementation of Taenia soliumcontrol measures in Bali, Indonesia: Survey findings and a historical overview.
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Historically, cysticercosis cases caused by infection with the larval stage of the Taenia solium tapeworm have occurred sporadically in Bali, with taeniasis carriers found primarily in villages located in the Kubu subdistrict of Karangasem. As Bali is a well-known tourist destination, living standards are relatively high on the island, except for an area located beneath the northeast slope of the active volcano Mt. Agung (Alt. 3031m), which includes Kubu. Over the last 30 years, pigs originating from this area have been found with T. solium cysticerci, whereas pigs from other parts of the island have not been shown to be infected. Out of 108 individuals screened via fecal sample examination in Kubu during 2019, 3 cases of T. solium taeniasis (2.8%) were identified. There was no significant difference in taeniasis prevalence from surveys conducted in 2011-2016 (1.0%, 11/1089) (p=0.123). Out of 110 humans and 140 pigs tested serologically in Kubu during 2019, no cases of cysticercosis were identified. This is in contrast to a seroprevalence of 4.1% (42/1025) in humans during 2011-2016 and a seroprevalence of 13.1% (43/329) in pigs during 2011-2013. Over the last decade, improved drinking water and sanitary systems have been employed in addition to health education targeting primary school children, including emphasis on washing hands before eating and after defecation. This review provides previously unpublished survey data and a historical overview of T. solium infection in Bali and offers guidance on best practices to ensure that remaining pockets of transmission are addressed.