Fatty acid biosynthesis and lipogenic enzyme activities in subcutaneous adipose tissue of feedlot steers fed supplementary palm oil or soybean oil
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We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipocyte differentiation in subcutaneous adipose tissue of feedlot steers, and that soybean oil supplementation would depress adipocyte differentiation. Twenty-eight Angus steers were assigned randomly to 3 groups of 9 or 10 steers and fed a basal diet without additional fat (control), with 3% palm oil (rich in palmitic acid), or with 3% soybean oil (rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids), for 10 wk, top-dressed daily. Palm oil had no effect (P > 0.05) on ADG, food intake, or G:F, whereas soybean oil depressed ADG (P = 0.02), food intake (P = 0.04), and G:F (P = 0.05). Marbling scores tended (P = 0.09) to be greater in palm oil-fed steers (Modest(09)) than in soybean oil-fed steers (Small(55)). Subcutaneous adipocyte mean volume was greater in palm oil-fed steers (515.9 pL) than in soybean-supplemented cattle (395.6 pL; P = 0.01). Similarly, glucose and acetate incorporation into total lipids in vitro was greater in subcutaneous adipose tissue of palm oil-fed steers (119.9 and 242.8 nmol·3h(-1)·10(5) cells, respectively) than adipose tissue of soybean oil-fed steers in (48.9 and 95.8 nmol·3h(-1)·10(5) cells, respectively). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP-malate dehydrogenase activities were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in subcutaneous adipose tissue of palm oil-fed steers than in adipose tissue of control steers. Palm oil did not increase palmitic acid or decrease oleic acid in subcutaneous adipose tissue or LM, but decreased (P ≤ 0.05) myristoleic, palmitoleic, and cis-vaccenic acid in adipose tissue, indicating a depression in stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase activity. Soybean oil increased the proportion of α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue and muscle and increased linoleic acid and 18:1trans-10 in muscle. We conclude that palm oil supplementation promoted lipid synthesis in adipose tissue without depressing feed efficiency or increasing the palmitic acid content of beef.
author list (cited authors)
Choi, S. H., Gang, G. O., Sawyer, J. E., Johnson, B. J., Kim, K. H., Choi, C. W., & Smith, S. B.