75 years of bovine viral diarrhea virus: Current status and future applications of the use of directed antivirals
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Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was first reported 75 years ago and remains a source of major financial and production losses in the North American cattle industry. Currently, control methods in North America primarily center around biosecurity and vaccination programs; however, despite high levels of vaccination, the virus persists in the cattle herd due at least in part to the often-insidious nature of disease and the constant viremia and viral shedding of persistently infected animals which act as a reservoir for the virus. Continued development of targeted antivirals represents an additional tool for the prevention of BVDV-associated losses. Currently, in vivo studies of BVDV antivirals are relatively limited and have primarily been directed at the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase which represents the viral target with the highest potential for commercial development. Additional live animal studies have explored the potential of exogenous interferon treatment. Future research of commercial antivirals must focus on the establishment and validation of in vivo efficacy for compounds with demonstrated antiviral potential. The areas which provide the most viable economic justification for the research and development of antivirals drugs are the fed cattle sector, outbreak control, and wildlife or animals of high genetic value. With further development, targeted antivirals represent an additional tool for the management and control of BVDV in North American cattle herds.
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