Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis could help to identify suitable molecular markers for marker-assisted breeding (MAB). A mapping population of 124 F5:7recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross ‘TAM 112’/‘TAM 111’ was grown under 28 diverse environments and evaluated for grain yield, test weight, heading date, and plant height. The objective of this study was to detect QTL conferring grain yield and agronomic traits from multiple mega-environments. Through a linkage map with 5,948 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 51 QTL were consistently identified in two or more environments or analyses. Ten QTL linked to two or more traits were also identified on chromosomes 1A, 1D, 4B, 4D, 6A, 7B, and 7D. Those QTL explained up to 13.3% of additive phenotypic variations with the additive logarithm of odds (LOD(A)) scores up to 11.2. The additive effect increased yield up to 8.16 and 6.57 g m−2 and increased test weight by 2.14 and 3.47 kg m−3 with favorable alleles from TAM 111 and TAM 112, respectively. Seven major QTL for yield and six for TW with one in common were of our interest on MAB as they explained 5% or more phenotypic variations through additive effects. This study confirmed previously identified loci and identified new QTL and the favorable alleles for improving grain yield and agronomic traits.