Strategy formulation processes: Differences in perceptions of strength and weaknesses indicators and environmental uncertainty by managerial level Academic Article uri icon


  • Some literature suggests that managers' perceptions of strengths and weaknesses indicators vary by management level. Differences likely result because of individuals' cognitive schemes, which include their cognitive biases. In turn, systematic errors may occur in managerial decisions. Results from the research reported herein support the notion that managers' perceptions of the indicators of a firm's strengths and weaknesses, and of environmental uncertainty, vary by managerial level. Differences in these perceptions were discovered to be more significant within each firm. Implications of these results are examined, including the impact on the deployment of firms' strategy formulation processes. Copyright © 1987 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

author list (cited authors)

  • Ireland, R. D., Hitt, M. A., Bettis, R. A., & De Porras, D. A.

citation count

  • 165

publication date

  • September 1987