Protein-Sourced Feedstuffs for Aquatic Animals in Nutrition Research and Aquaculture. Chapter uri icon


  • Aquatic animals have particularly high requirements for dietary amino acids (AAs) for health, survival, growth, development, and reproduction. These nutrients are usually provided from ingested proteins and may also be derived from supplemental crystalline AA. AAs are the building blocks of protein (a major component of tissue growth) and, therefore, are the determinants of the growth performance and feed efficiency of farmed fish. Because protein is generally the most expensive ingredient in aqua feeds, much attention has been directed to ensure that dietary protein feedstuff is of high quality and cost-effective for feeding fish, crustaceans, and other aquatic animals worldwide. Due to the rapid development of aquaculture worldwide and a limited source of fishmeal (the traditionally sole or primary source of AAs for aquatic animals), alternative protein sources must be identified to feed aquatic animals. Plant-sourced feedstuffs for aquatic animals include soybean meal, extruded soybean meal, fermented soybean meal, soybean protein concentrates, soybean protein isolates, leaf meal, hydrolyzed plant protein, wheat, wheat hydrolyzed protein, canola meal, cottonseed meal, peanut meal, sunflower meal, peas, rice, dried brewers grains, and dried distillers grains. Animal-sourced feedstuffs include fishmeal, fish paste, bone meal, meat and bone meal, poultry by-product meal, chicken by-product meal, chicken visceral digest, spray-dried poultry plasma, spray-dried egg product, hydrolyzed feather meal, intestine-mucosa product, peptones,¬†blood meal (bovine or poultry), whey powder with high protein content, cheese powder, and insect meal. Microbial sources of protein feedstuffs include yeast protein and single-cell microbial protein (e.g., algae); they have more balanced AA profiles than most plant proteins for animal feeding. Animal-sourced ingredients can be used as a single source of dietary protein or in complementary combinations with plant and microbial sources of proteins. All protein feedstuffs must adequately provide functional AAs for aquatic animals.

author list (cited authors)

  • Jia, S., Li, X., He, W., & Wu, G.

complete list of authors

  • Jia, Sichao||Li, Xinyu||He, Wenliang||Wu, Guoyao

Book Title

  • Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition and Metabolism

publication date

  • November 2022