Nearly a billion adults around the world are affected by a disease that is characterized by upper airway collapse while sleeping called obstructive sleep apnea or OSA. The progression and lasting effects of untreated OSA include an increased risk of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, stroke, and heart failure. There is often a decrease in quality-of-life scores and an increased rate of mortality in these patients. The most common and effective treatments for OSA include continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), surgical treatment, behavior modification, changes in lifestyle, and mandibular advancement devices. There are currently no pharmacological options approved for the standard treatment of OSA. There are, however, some pharmacological treatments for daytime sleepiness caused by OSA. Identifying and treating obstructive sleep apnea early is important to reduce the risks of future complications.