Fouling in thin film nanocomposite membranes for power generation through pressure retarded osmosis Institutional Repository Document uri icon


  • Osmotic energy (or salinity-gradient energy) is the energy released when water with different salinities is mixed, such as rivers and oceans. By employing a semipermeable membrane to control the mixing process, the osmotic pressure gradient energy can be generated in terms of electrical power via pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) without causing adverse environmental impacts. This work presents the fabrication of thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes which are customized to offer high flux in forward osmosis (FO) and high osmotic power in PRO. In this study, the TFN membrane was fabricated by forming a polyamide thin film on the polysulfone substrate through the interfacial polymerization process. One of the challenges in this process is the fouling of PRO membranes. Fouling is one of the major characteristics that results in the decline in the water flux of the membrane. The hydraulic pressure during PRO processes is less than RO processes so membranes that are used for PRO are less likely to foul. Experiments show that TFN membranes are more tolerant of fouling than TFC membranes because of the nanomaterials which has higher surface hydrophilicity. The structure of the membrane is a very significant characteristic that has an influence on fouling. Especially, the structure of porosity that is coherent to the thickness.

altmetric score

  • 0.25

author list (cited authors)

  • Shadravan, A., Amani, M., Goh, P., & Ismail, A. F.

citation count

  • 1

complete list of authors

  • Shadravan, Arvin||Amani, Mahmood||Goh, Peisean||Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi

Book Title

  • arXiv

publication date

  • December 2021