The association between rurality, sociodemographic characteristics, and mammogram screening outcomes among a sample of low-income uninsured women. Academic Article uri icon


  • Studies have found a positive association between adherence to mammography screening guidelines and early detection of breast cancer lesions, yet the proportion of women who get screened for breast cancer remains below national targets. Previous studies have found that mammography screening rates vary by sociodemographic factors including race/ethnicity, income, education, and rurality. It is less known whether sociodemographic factors are also related to mammography screening outcomes in underserved populations. Thus, with a particular interest in rurality, we examined the association between the sociodemographic characteristics and mammography screening outcomes within our sample of 1,419 low-income, uninsured Texas women who received grant-funded mammograms between 2013 and 2019 (n=1,419). Screening outcomes were recorded as either negative (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification 1-3) or positive (BI-RADS classification 4-6). When we conducted independency tests between sociodemographic characteristics (age, race/ethnicity, rurality, county-level risk, family history, and screening compliance) and screening outcomes, we found that none of the factors were significantly associated with mammogram screening outcomes. Similarly, when we regressed screening outcomes on age, race/ethnicity, and rurality via logistic regression, we found that none were significant predictors of a positive screening outcome. Though we did not find evidence of a relationship between rurality and mammography screening outcomes, research suggests that among women who do screen positive for breast cancer, rural women are more likely to present with later stage breast cancer than urban women. Thus, it remains important to continue to increase breast cancer education and access to routine cancer screening for rural women.

published proceedings

  • Prev Med Rep

author list (cited authors)

  • Kassabian, M., Olowolaju, S., Akinlotan, M. A., Lichorad, A., Pope, R., Williamson, B., Horel, S., & Bolin, J. N.

citation count

  • 0

complete list of authors

  • Kassabian, Morgan||Olowolaju, Samson||Akinlotan, Marvellous A||Lichorad, Anna||Pope, Robert||Williamson, Brandon||Horel, Scott||Bolin, Jane N

publication date

  • December 2021