Direct Detection of the Labile Nickel Pool in Escherichia coli: New Perspectives on Labile Metal Pools.
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Nickel serves critical roles in the metabolism of E.coli and many prokaryotes. Many details of nickel trafficking are unestablished, but a nonproteinaceous low-molecular-mass (LMM) labile nickel pool (LNiP) is thought to be involved. The portion of the cell lysate that flowed through a 3 kDa cutoff membrane, which ought to contain this pool, was analyzed by size-exclusion and hydrophilic interaction chromatographies (SEC and HILIC) with detection by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometries. Flow-through-solutions (FTSs) contained 11-15 M Ni, which represented most Ni in the cell. Chromatograms exhibited 4 major Ni-detected peaks. MS analysis of FTS and prepared nickel complex standards established that these peaks arose from Ni(II) coordinated to oxidized glutathione, histidine, aspartate, and ATP. Surprisingly, Ni complexes with reduced glutathione or citrate were not members of the LNiP under the conditions examined. Aqueous Ni(II) ions were absent in the FTS. Detected complexes were stable in chelator-free buffer but were disrupted by treatment with 1,10-phenanthroline or citrate. Titrating FTS with additional NiSO4 suggested that the total nickel-binding capacity of cytosol is approximately 20-45 M. Members of the LNiP are probably in rapid equilibrium. Previously reported binding constants to various metalloregulators may have overestimated the relevant binding strength in the cell because aqueous metal salts were used in those determinations. The LNiP may serve as both a Ni reservoir and buffer, allowing cells to accommodate a range of Ni concentrations. The composition of the LNiP may change with cellular metabolism and nutrient status.