Antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes in shrimp aquaculture water: Identification and removal by ferrate(VI) Academic Article uri icon


  • Enclosed shrimp culturing ponds are breeding environments for the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the aquatic environment. This paper surveyed the presence of antibiotics, ARB, and ARGs in aquaculture waters and demonstrated their removal by ferrate (Fe(VI), FeO42-). Tetracyclines were the most prevalent antibiotics, followed by quinolones and β-lactam. The bacterial resistance rates to three antibiotics were ordered as follows: amoxicillin (AMX) > oxytetracycline (OTC) > enrofloxacin (ENR). Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Bacteroidetes were the predominant phyla, while sul1 and sul2 were the predominant ARGs. sul2 was positively correlated with Proteobacteria. Water quality parameters significantly influenced the dissemination of tetracycline resistance genes in aquacultures due to high organic waste accumulation. The removal efficiency of antibiotics by Fe(VI) depended on the structural moieties of antibiotics, with phenol-containing antibiotics more thoroughly oxidized (i.e., OTC) than amine-containing (ENR and AMX) antibiotics. Greater removal of antibiotics in aquaculture waters suggested that the constituents of farming water enhances the efficacy of antibiotics removal by Fe(VI). An acidic pH environment enhanced Fe(VI) inactivation of ARB over the circumneutral pH. The presented results are intended to improve aquaculture managing practices to minimize the antibiotic proliferation in aquaculture waters and the environment.

published proceedings

  • Journal of Hazardous Materials

author list (cited authors)

  • Suyamud, B., Lohwacharin, J., Yang, Y., & Sharma, V. K

citation count

  • 4

complete list of authors

  • Suyamud, Bongkotrat||Lohwacharin, Jenyuk||Yang, Yuyi||Sharma, Virender K

publication date

  • October 2021