Crassicaudiasis in three geographically and chronologically distant Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) stranded off Brazil.
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The Cuvier's beaked whale (CBW; Ziphius cavirostris) is a cosmopolitan marine mammal found in deep tropical and temperate waters of all oceans. CBW strandings have been recorded sporadically in Brazil; however, there is lack of information available regarding their causes of stranding and/or death. Herein, we report the epidemiologic, pathologic, morphologic parasitologic features and molecular identification of arterial and renal crassicaudiasis by Crassicauda sp. in three geographically and chronologically distant CBW stranded off Brazil. CBW-1 was an adult male stranded dead in Rio Grande do Sul State. CBW-2 was an adult female that stranded alive in Sergipe State and died shortly after. CBW-3 was and adult male that stranded dead in Santa Catarina State. The most relevant pathologic findings in these three CBW were severe, chronic proliferative mesenteric and caudal aortic endarteritis and chronic granulomatous and fibrosing interstitial nephritis with renicular atrophy and loss, and numerous intralesional Crassicauda sp. nematodes. Furthermore, CBW-1 had concomitant gram-negative bacterial pneumonia and pulmonary and hepatic thromboembolism. Morphologic analysis of renal adult nematodes identified Crassicauda sp. in the three CBW. Molecular analyses targeting the 18S and ITS-2 ribosomal loci of renal nematodes in CBW-2 and CBW-3 identified C. anthonyi. It is believed that severe arterial and renal crassicaudiasis likely resulted or contributed significantly to morbidity and death of these animals. These results expand the known geographical range of occurrence of crassicaudiasis in CBW. Specifically, the present study provides the first accounts of arterial and renal crassicaudiasis in CBW off the southern hemisphere, specifically in CBW off Brazil, and to the authors' knowledge, it is the first record of C. anthonyi in the southern Atlantic Ocean.
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl
author list (cited authors)
Febronio, A., Boos, G. S., Batista, R., Amorim, D. B., Guimares, J. P., Bianchi, M. V., ... Daz-Delgado, J.
complete list of authors
Febronio, Andrei MB||Boos, Gisele S||Batista, Renata LG||Amorim, Derek B||Guimarães, Juliana P||Bianchi, Matheus V||Mariani, Daniela B||Koproski, Letícia||Mari, Cristine||Parente, Jociery EV||Sonne, Luciana||Werneck, Max R||Marques, Sandra MT||Driemeier, David||Kolesnikovas, Cristiane KM||Groch, Karina R||Sobotyk, Caroline||Verocai, Guilherme G||Groch, Kátia R||Díaz-Delgado, Josué