Mechanism-Based Inactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isocitrate Lyase 1 by (2R,3S)-2-Hydroxy-3-(nitromethyl)succinic acid.
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The isocitrate lyase paralogs of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (ICL1 and 2) are essential for mycobacterial persistence and constitute targets for the development of antituberculosis agents. We report that (2R,3S)-2-hydroxy-3-(nitromethyl)succinic acid (5-NIC) undergoes apparent retro-aldol cleavage as catalyzed by ICL1 to produce glyoxylate and 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP), the latter of which is a covalent-inactivating agent of ICL1. Kinetic analysis of this reaction identified that 5-NIC serves as a robust and efficient mechanism-based inactivator of ICL1 (kinact/KI = (1.3 0.1) 103 M-1 s-1) with a partition ratio <1. Using enzyme kinetics, mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography, we identified that the reaction of the 5-NIC-derived 3-NP with the Cys191 thiolate of ICL1 results in formation of an ICL1-thiohydroxamate adduct as predicted. One aspect of the design of 5-NIC was to lower its overall charge compared to isocitrate to assist with cell permeability. Accordingly, the absence of the third carboxylate group will simplify the synthesis of pro-drug forms of 5-NIC for characterization in cell-infection models of M. tuberculosis.