Submicron Metal 3D Printing by Ultrafast Laser Heating and Induced Ligand Transformation of Nanocrystals Academic Article uri icon


  • Currently, light-based three-dimensional (3D) printing with submicron features is mainly developed based on photosensitive polymers or inorganic-polymer composite materials. To eliminate polymer/organic additives, a strategy for direct 3D assembly and printing of metallic nanocrystals without additives is presented. Ultrafast laser with intensity in the range of 1 × 1010 to 1 × 1012 W/cm2 is used to nonequilibrium heat nanocrystals and induce ligand transformation, which triggers the spontaneous fusion and localized assembly of nanocrystals. The process is due to the operation of hot electrons as confirmed by a strong dependence of the printing rate on laser pulse duration varied in the range of electron-phonon relaxation time. Using the developed laser-induced ligand transformation (LILT) process, direct printing of 3D metallic structures at micro and submicron scales is demonstrated. Facile integration with other microscale additive manufacturing for printing 3D devices containing multiscale features is also demonstrated.

published proceedings

  • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces

altmetric score

  • 1.5

author list (cited authors)

  • Podder, C., Gong, X., Yu, X., Shou, W., & Pan, H.

citation count

  • 0

complete list of authors

  • Podder, Chinmoy||Gong, Xiangtao||Yu, Xiaowei||Shou, Wan||Pan, Heng

publication date

  • September 2021