Roll bonding (RB) describes solid-state manufacturing processes where cold or hot rolling of plates or sheet metal is carried out for joining similar and dissimilar materials through the principle of severe plastic deformation. This review covers the mechanics of RB processes, identifies the key process parameters, and provides a detailed discussion on their scientific and/or engineering aspects, which influence the microstructure–mechanical behavior relations of processed materials. It further evaluates the available research focused on improving the metallurgical and mechanical behavior of bonded materials such as microstructure modification, strength enhancement, local mechanical properties, and corrosion and electrical resistance evolution. Moreover, current applications and advantages, limitations of the process and developments in dissimilar material hot roll bonding technologies for producing titanium to steel and stainless steel to carbon steel ultra-thick plates are also discussed. The paper concludes by deliberating on the bonding mechanisms, engineering guidelines and process–property–structure relationships, and recommending probable areas for future research.