Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) is a problematic common weed species, especially in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). With the wide use of chemical herbicide and herbicide-tolerant transgenic cotton lines, Palmer amaranth populations have developed tolerance to commonly used herbicides. It is imperative to develop alternative weed control methods to slow the evolution of herbicide-resistant weed populations and provide new sources for weed management. Eleven chromosome substitution (CS) cotton lines CS-B26lo, CS-T17, CS-B16-15, CS-B17-11, CS-B12, CS-T05sh, CS-T26lo, CS-T11sh, CS-M11sh, CS-B22sh, and CS-B22lo were screened for weed-suppressing abilities in this study. The cotton lines were tested using the established stair-step structure methodology, which provided scope to study the effect of individual CS lines on the growth and development of Palmer amaranth weed without any interference of other external factors in the greenhouse. Height (cm) and chlorophyll concentration (cci) were measured for each plant in the system. The data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design using LSD mean comparisons of the genotypes at the P .05 level. The 14th day after establishment resulted in the most significant variation in Palmer amaranth height reduction among the CS lines. Results indicated that CS-B22sh had the highest effect in reducing Palmer amaranth height and chlorophyll concentration with the most heightened susceptibility for Palmer amaranth. The cluster analysis revealed that Enlist cotton, CS-CS-B22sh, and CS-T26lo were clustered in one group suggesting similar genetic potential with reference to Palmer amaranth growth and development. CS-B22sh showed novel genetic potential to control the growth and development of Palmer amaranth, a major weed in cotton fields. In the future, it will be interesting to investigate if CS-B22sh exudates from its root contain allelochemicals able to impede the growth and development of Palmer amaranth.