With the growing importance of surveillance for bovine spongiform encephalopathy, pursuing and accurately diagnosing central nervous system disease in cattle has increased substantially. In Brazil, there are many plants that will induce CNS disease in cattle, including those plants causing lysosomal storage disease (
Ipomoea carneasubsp. fistulosa, Phalaris angusta, Sida carpinifoliaand Solanum fastigiatumvar. fastigiatum), primary neuronal degeneration ( Ipomoea asarifolia, Prosopis juliflora) and plants causing spongy degeneration of the CNS white matter ( Ateleia glazioviana, Tetrapterysspp. and Seneciospp.). In addition, recently Marsdeniasp. was described causing CNS disease in cattle but no morphological changes could be associated with the disease. This paper reviews these poisonous plants affecting the central nervous system of cattle.