Does Combined Temporomandibular Joint Reconstruction With Patient Fitted Total Joint Prosthesis and Orthognathic Surgery Reduce Symptoms in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Patients?
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Patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and TMJ involvement may have major dentofacial deformities, pain, and jaw dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate surgical outcomes for JIA patients relative to TMJ pain, headache, jaw function, diet, disability, and quality-of-life (QOL) after TMJ reconstruction with patient-fitted total joint prostheses (TJP) and concomitant orthognathic surgery.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted on a JIA patient group (JIAG) with significant dentofacial deformity, reconstructed with TJP and concomitant orthognathic surgery, and was compared to a control group (CG) of non-JIA patients that received the same surgical protocol with similar surgical movements. Primary predictors were the 2 groups: JIAG and CG. Data were evaluated and compared presurgery and at longest follow-up using Likert analog scales for the primary variables: TMJ pain, headache, jaw function, diet, and disability. Maximum interincisal opening (MIO) was measured in mm. QOL was rated in JIAG as improved, same, or worse. Comparative data were tested for significance (α = 0.05) using Wilcoxon signed rank and paired T-tests.
Forty JIAG patients (8 males, 32 females) met the inclusion criteria, median age 17.5 years, median follow-up 26.5 months, and 26 CG patients (1 male, 25 females), median age 35.5 years, follow-up 24 months. Significant improvements (P ≤ .05) occurred postsurgery for TMJ pain, headache, jaw function, diet, and disability for both groups. Mean increase MIO for JIAG was 36.4 to 43.3 mm, for CG was 35.2 to 37.8 mm. Thirty-eight JIA patients (95%) improved in QOL, 2 had no change, and none were worse.
This study suggests that patient-fitted TJP for TMJ reconstruction in conjunction with orthognathic surgery for the JIA patient provides long-term improvement relative to TMJ pain, headache, jaw function, diet, disability, MIO, and QOL.