Electrical Characterization of the Tongue and the Soft Palate Using Lumped-Element Model for Intraoral Neuromodulation. Academic Article uri icon


  • Intraoral functions are results of complex and well-orchestrated sensorimotor loop operations, and therefore vulnerable to small functional or neural defects. To secure the vital intraoral functions, it is important to find a way to favorably intervene the intraoral sensorimotor loop operations. The tongue and the soft palate are heavily associated with intraoral sensorimotor loops, with their dense neural innervations and occupancy of intraoral space. Therefore, electrical stimulation onto the tongue and the soft palate has a great potential to solve the problems in the intraoral functions. However, the electrical interface for both of them have not been characterized yet as a lumped-element model, for designing electrical stimulation and analyzing its effect. In this study, we measured stimulation thresholds to evoke electrotactile feedback and characterized electrical impedance across electrodes using lumped-element models. We found that average perception/discomfort thresholds for the tongue tip, lateral-inferior side of the tongue, and anterolateral side of the soft palate as 0.18/1.31, 0.37/3.99, and 1.19/7.55 mA, respectively. An R-C-R-R-C model represented the electrical interface across the tongue and the soft palate with the highest accuracy. The average component values of the R-C-R-R-C model were found as 2.72k, 45.25nF, 1.27k, 22.09G, and 53.00nF, on average.

published proceedings

  • IEEE Trans Biomed Eng

altmetric score

  • 80.484

author list (cited authors)

  • Park, B., Biswas, S., & Park, H.

citation count

  • 3

complete list of authors

  • Park, Beomhee||Biswas, Saurabh||Park, Hangue

publication date

  • October 2021