Targeting Lymphangiogenesis and Lymph Node Metastasis in Liver Cancer.
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Increased lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis, the important prognostic indicators of aggressive hepatobiliary malignancies such as hepatocellular cancer and cholangiocarcinoma, are associated with poor patient outcome. The liver produces 25% to 50% of total lymphatic fluid in the body and has a dense network of lymphatic vessels. The lymphatic system plays critical roles in fluid homeostasis and inflammation and immune response. Yet, lymphatic vessel alterations and function are grossly understudied in the context of liver pathology. Expansion of the lymphatic network has been documented in clinical samples of liver cancer; and although largely overlooked in the liver, tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis is an important player, increasing tumor metastasis in several cancers. This review aims to provide a detailed perspective on the current knowledge of alterations in the hepatic lymphatic system during liver malignancies, as well as various molecular signaling mechanisms and growth factors that may provide future targets for therapeutic intervention. In addition, the review also addresses current mechanisms and bottlenecks for effective therapeutic targeting of tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis.
author list (cited authors)
Roy, S., Banerjee, P., Ekser, B., Bayless, K., Zawieja, D., Alpini, G., Glaser, S. S., & Chakraborty, S.
complete list of authors
Roy, Sukanya||Banerjee, Priyanka||Ekser, Burcin||Bayless, Kayla||Zawieja, David||Alpini, Gianfranco||Glaser, Shannon S||Chakraborty, Sanjukta