Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress due to biotic or abiotic stress activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore ER homeostasis. The UPR relies on multiple ER-to-nucleus signaling factors which mainly induce the expression of cytoprotective ER-chaperones. The inositol requiring enzyme (IRE1) along with its splicing target, bZIP60, restrict potyvirus, and potexvirus accumulation. Until now, the involvement of the alternative UPR pathways and the role of UPR to limit virus accumulation have remained elusive. Here, we used the
Plantago asiatica mosaic virus(PlAMV) and the Turnip mosaic virus(TuMV) to demonstrate that the potexvirus triple gene block 3 (TGB3) protein and the potyvirus 6K2 protein activate the bZIP17, bZIP28, bZIP60, BAG7, NAC089 and NAC103 signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using the corresponding knock-out mutant lines, we demonstrated that these factors differentially restrict local and systemic virus accumulation. We show that bZIP17, bZIP60, BAG7, and NAC089 are factors in PlAMV infection, whereas bZIP28 and bZIP60 are factors in TuMV infection. TGB3 and 6K2 transient expression in leave reveal that these alternative pathways induce BiPs expression. Finally, using dithiothreitol (DTT) and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) treatment, we demonstrated that the protein folding capacity significantly influences PlAMV accumulation. Together, these results indicate that multiple ER-to-nucleus signaling pathways are activated during virus infection and restrict virus accumulation through increasing protein folding capacity. Significance statement
The IRE1/bZIP60 pathway of unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated by potyviruses and potexviruses, limiting their infection, but the role of alternative UPR pathways is unknown. This study reveals the activation of multiple ER-to-nucleus signaling pathways by the
Plantago asiatica mosaic virusand the Turnip mosaic virus.We identify additional signaling pathways serve to restrict virus accumulation through increased protein folding capacity.