Intermittent catheterisation practice of people with spinal cord injury in five districts of Nepal Academic Article uri icon


  • To identify existing intermittent urinary catheterisation practices, and related barriers among people with spinal cord injury living in the community in five districts of Nepal, a descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken. A structured questionnaire and observation checklist were used to collect data during home visits. A total of 78 individuals with spinal cord injury were included in this study, mean age 36.5 years. Seventy-five (96%) reused catheters. Variations were seen in the frequency of catheterisation, type of catheter used, duration of reuse, and cleaning and storage techniques. Common perceived barriers were inaccessibility of toilets (73%) and difficulties obtaining supplies (72%). More than half (52%) the participants self-reported urinary tract infection two to three times a year. From this study we identified a need to develop strategies to maintain continuum of care after discharge. The existing education and training for those doing intermittent catheterisation is inadequate to address common problems such as infection, and further training should be standardised along with an effective system of evaluation. Collaboration with government and non-government agencies could initiate programs for long-term home and workplace modification to assist people with spinal cord injury to live successfully in the community and increase the availability and ongoing institutional supply of necessary items for intermittent catheterisation. This study should increase awareness among the health professionals in the communities of Nepal about intermittent catheterisation practice and its barriers.

published proceedings

  • The Australian and New Zealand Continence Journal

author list (cited authors)

  • Mandira Baniya, .., Christine Cain Groves, .., & Muna Bhattarai

complete list of authors