Polyamines are essential for cell growth and beneficial for intestinal maturation. To evaluate the effects of putrescine on alleviating intestinal atrophy and underlying molecular mechanisms, both
in vivofeeding trial and in vitrocell culture were conducted. Weanling pigs were fed a diet supplemented with 0, 0.1%, 0.2% or 0.3% putrescine dihydrochloride, whereas porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence of 200 μmol/L putrescine. Results
Dietary supplementation with 0.2% putrescine dihydrochloride decreased the incidence of diarrhea with an improvement in intestinal integrity. Inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase activity decreased the proliferation and migration of IPEC-J2 cells, and this effect was alleviated by the supplementation with putrescine. The phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase and focal adhesion kinase was enhanced by putrescine. LPS increased the expression of inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8], and inhibited cell proliferation and migration in IPEC-J2 cells. Adding exogenous putrescine suppressed the expression of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8, and recovered cell migration and proliferation in LPS-treated IPEC-J2 cells. Dietary putrescine supplementation also reduced the mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 and their upstream regulator nuclear receptor kappa B p65 subunit in the jejunal mucosa of piglets.
Dietary supplementation with putrescine mitigated mucosal atrophy in weanling piglets through improving anti-inflammatory function and suppressing inflammatory response. Our results have important implications for nutritional management of intestinal integrity and health in weanling piglets and other neonates.