Effects of maternal L-proline supplementation on inflammatory cytokines at the placenta and fetus interface of mice. Academic Article uri icon


  • Dietary L-proline (proline) supplementation during gestation enhances fetal survival and placental development in mice. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that this beneficial effect of proline was associated with alterations in inflammatory response at the placenta and fetus interface. Populations of immune cells present in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were determined by flow cytometry analysis. The concentrations of immunoglobulins in plasma, and the concentrations of cytokines in plasma, uterus, placenta, and amniotic fluid were measured using a bead-based immunoassay. The data showed that proline supplementation led to higher (P < 0.05) populations of B lymphocytes (CD3-CD19+), natural killer (NK) cells (CD3-NK1.1+), and dendritic cells (DCs, CD11c+MHCII+) in peripheral blood, as compared with the controls. Conversely, mice fed a proline-supplemented diet had a lower population of neutrophils (CD11b+F4/80-). Further study showed that proline supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) the concentrations of (1) interleukin (IL)-23, IL-1α, and IL-6 in plasma; (2) IL-6 in the uterus; and (3) tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, and IL-17 in the placenta; and (4) interferon (IFN)-γ in amniotic fluid, compared with controls. Conversely, proline supplementation resulted in higher (P < 0.05) concentrations of (1) IL-10, IL-17 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in plasma; (2) IL-10 and IL-1α in the uterus; and (3) IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-27, and IFN-β in amniotic fluid, compared with controls. Moreover, concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig) G2b and IgM were enhanced (P < 0.05) by proline administration. Taken together, our results reveal a regulatory effect of proline in the immunological response at the maternal-fetal interface, which is critical for embryonic development and fetal survival.

published proceedings

  • Amino Acids

altmetric score

  • 0.5

author list (cited authors)

  • Liu, N., Chen, J., He, Y. u., Jia, H., Jiang, D. a., Li, S., ... Wu, G.

citation count

  • 6

complete list of authors

  • Liu, Ning||Chen, Jingqing||He, Yu||Jia, Hai||Jiang, Da||Li, Shuai||Yang, Ying||Dai, Zhaolai||Wu, Zhenlong||Wu, Guoyao

publication date

  • April 2020